Ensk - Íslensk Orðabók:
rate 1. A specialized type of political organization characterized by a full-time, specialized, professional work force of tax-collectors, soldiers, policemen, bureaucrats and the like that exercises supreme political authority over a defined territory with a permanent population, independent from any enduring external political control and possessing a local predominance of coercive power (always supplemented with moral and remunerative incentives as well) great enough to maintain general obedience to its laws or commands within its territorial borders. The first known states were created in ancient times in Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China, Mexico and Peru, but it is only in relatively modern times that states have almost completely displaced alternative stateless forms of political organization of societies all over the planet. (Roving bands of hunter-gatherers and even fairly sizable and complex tribal societies based on herding or agriculture have existed without any full-time specialized state organization, and these stateless forms of political organization have in fact prevailed for all of the prehistory and much of the history of the human species.) One of the component territorial political units in a larger federal state that are so called because, although they actually fall short of full independent statehood or sovereignty, they still possess a very large degree of autonomy in decision-making with respect to most of their internal affairs and are thus also legally allowed to exercise various forms of coercion over their regional populations.
rate 2. anagram taste
rate 3. state located on the western coast of Myanmar
rate 4. condition; stage, phase; mood, emotional condition; splendor; overly excited or distressed; nation; internally autonomous territorial or political unit joined with others under a sovereign government
rate 5. say, speak; express verbally or in writing; announce, declare firmly
rate 6. governmental, bureaucratic; majestic, dignified
rate 7. Civil War or War Between the States; (1861–65) Conflict between the United States federal government and 11 Southern states that fought to secede from the Union. It arose out of disputes over the issues of slavery, trade and tariffs and the doctrine of states' rights. In the 1840s and '50s, Northern opposition to slavery in the Western territories caused the Southern states to fear that existing slaveholdings, which formed the economic base of the South, were also in danger. By the 1850s abolitionism was growing in the North and when the antislavery Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, the Southern states seceded to protect what they saw as their right to keep slaves. They were organized as the Confederate States of America under Jefferson Davis. The Northern states of the federal Union, under Lincoln, commanded more than twice the population of the Confederacy and held greater advantages in manufacturing and transportation capacity. The war began in Charleston, S.C., when Confederate artillery fired on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. Both sides quickly raised armies. In July 1861, 30,000 Union troops marched toward the Confederate capital at Richmond, Va., but were stopped by Confederate forces in the Battle of Bull Run and forced to retreat to Washington, D.C. The defeat shocked the Union, which called for 500,000 more recruits. The war's first major campaign began in February 1862, when Union troops under Ulysses S. Grant captured Confederate forts in western Tennessee. Union victories at the battles of Shiloh and New Orleans followed. In the East, Robert E. Lee won several Confederate victories in the Seven Days' Battles and, after defeat at the Battle of Antietam, in the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 1862). After the Confederate victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Lee invaded the North and engaged Union forces under George Meade at the momentous Battle of Gettysburg. The war's turning point in the West occurred in July 1863 with Grant's success in the Vicksburg Campaign, which brought the entire Mississippi River under Union control. Grant's command was expanded after the Union defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga and in March 1864 Lincoln gave him supreme command of the Union armies. He began a strategy of attrition and, despite heavy Union casualties at the battles of the Wilderness and Spotsylvania, began to surround Lee's troops in Petersburg, Va.. Meanwhile William T. Sherman captured Atlanta in September, set out on a destructive march through Georgia and soon captured Savannah. Grant captured Richmond on April 3, 1865 and accepted Lee's surrender on April 9 at Appomattox Court House. On April 26 Sherman received the surrender of Joseph Johnston, thereby ending the war. The mortality rates of the war were staggering; there were about 620,000 deaths out of a total of 2.4 million soldiers. The South was devastated. But the Union was preserved and slavery was abolished.
rate 8. United States War of Independence; (1775–83) War that won political independence for 13 of Britain's North American colonies, which formed the United States of America. After the end of the costly French and Indian War (1763), Britain imposed new taxes and trade restrictions on the colonies, fueling growing resentment and strengthening the colonists' objection to their lack of representation in the British Parliament. Determined to achieve independence, the colonies formed the Continental Army, composed chiefly of minutemen, to challenge Britain's large, organized militia. The war began when Britain sent a force to destroy rebel military stores at Concord, Mass. After fighting broke out on April 19, 1775, rebel forces began a siege of Boston that ended when American forces under Henry Knox forced out the British troops under William Howe on March 17, 1776. Britain's offer of pardon in exchange for surrender was refused by the Americans, who declared themselves independent on July 4, 1776. British forces retaliated by driving the army of George Washington from New York to New Jersey. On December 25, Washington crossed the Delaware River and won the battles of Trenton and Princeton. The British army split to cover more territory, a fatal error. In engaging the Americans in Pennsylvania, notably in the Battle of the Brandywine, they left the troops in the north vulnerable. Despite a victory in the Battle of Ticonderoga, British troops under John Burgoyne were defeated by Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold in the Battle of Saratoga (Oct. 17, 1777). Washington quartered his 11,000 troops through a bleak winter at Valley Forge, where they received training from Frederick Steuben that gave them victory in Monmouth, N.J., on June 28, 1778. British forces in the north thenceforth chiefly concentrated near New York. France, which had been secretly furnishing aid to the Americans since 1776, finally declared war on Britain in June 1778. French troops assisted American troops in the south, culminating in the successful Siege of Yorktown, where Charles Cornwallis surrendered his forces on October 19, 1781, bringing an end to the war on land. War continued at sea, fought chiefly between Britain and the U.S.'s European allies. The navies of Spain and the Netherlands contained most of Britain's navy near Europe and away from the fighting in America. The last battle of the war was won by the American navy under John Barry in March 1783 in the Straits of Florida. With the Treaty of Paris (Sept. 3, 1783), Britain recognized the independence of the United States east of the Mississippi River and ceded Florida to Spain.
rate 9. Regional organization formed in 1945 and based in Cairo. It initially comprised Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Transjordan (now Jordan), Saudi Arabia and Yemen; joining later were Libya, Sudan, Tunisia, Morocco, Kuwait, Algeria, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Mauritania, Somalia, the Palestine Liberation Organization, Djibouti and Comoros. The league's original aims were to strengthen and coordinate political, cultural, economic and social programs and to mediate disputes; a later aim was to coordinate military defense. Members have often split on political issues; Egypt was suspended for 10 years (1979–89) following its peace with Israel and the Persian Gulf War (1990–91) also caused deep rifts.
rate 10. Trading bloc composed of 25 countries of the Caribbean basin. Responding to a proposal by Pres. Bill Clinton for a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), existing Caribbean-area trading blocs joined forces in 1995 to strengthen their economic position and ease future integration into the FTAA. Prominent in the ACS are the Caricom countries (13 English-speaking countries and Suriname), which have been struggling toward a single market and economy along the lines of the European Union. The ACS has addressed such issues as unifying responses to natural disasters, ending the United States embargo of Cuba and ending shipments of nuclear materials through the Panama Canal.
rate 11. Republics of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, situated on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. The name has sometimes been used to include Finland and Poland. They were created as independent states in 1917 from the Baltic provinces of Russia, the city of Kovno and part of the Polish department of Wilno (later Lithuania). With the aid of German and Allied forces, the Baltic states repelled a Bolshevik invasion in 1919. In 1940 they were forcibly occupied by the Soviet Union and incorporated as constituent republics. In 1944 Soviet troops recovered the territory overrun by German forces in 1941. The Baltic states gained independence on the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
rate 12. Bank chartered in 1791 by the United States Congress. It was conceived by Alexander Hamilton to pay off the country's debts from the American Revolution and to provide a stable currency. Its establishment, opposed by Thomas Jefferson, was marked by extended debate over its constitutionality and contributed significantly to the evolution of pro-and anti-bank factions into the first United States political parties, the Federalist Party and the Democratic-Republican Party. The national bank played the unexpected but beneficial role of preventing private state banks from overextending credit, a restriction that some nevertheless considered an affront to states' rights. Meanwhile, agrarian populists regarded the bank as an institution of privilege and wealth and the enemy of democracy and the interests of the common people. Antagonism over the bank issue grew so heated that its charter could not be renewed in 1811. Criticism of the bank reached its height during the administration of Pres. Andrew Jackson, who led anti-bank forces in the long struggle known as the Bank War. The bank's charter expired in 1836. Its reorganization as the Bank of the United States of Pennsylvania ended its regulation of private banks.
rate 13. Meeting place of the United States Congress. In 1792 a competition for its design was won by William Thornton (1759–1828); his revised Federal-style design of 1795 was executed as the exterior of the wings adjacent to the central rotunda. Benjamin H. Latrobe, as Surveyor of Public Buildings (1803), followed Thornton's conception of the exterior but used his own interior designs; perhaps his best-known contribution was his invention of tobacco-leaf and corn-cob capitals. After the British set fire to the Capitol in 1814, Latrobe began its reconstruction, but resigned in 1817. By 1827 his successor, Charles Bulfinch, had joined the two wings and built the first dome and the rotunda. In 1850 Thomas Ustick Walter (1804–1887) won a competition to expand the wings; he also designed the 287–ft-(87–m-) high cast-iron dome (1855–66), which was based on Michelangelo's dome for St. Peter's Basilica. The marble and sandstone building contains about 540 rooms and stands in a 131-acre (53-hectare) park.
rate 14. Free association of sovereign states formed in 1991, comprising Russia and 11 other republics that were formerly part of the Soviet Union. Members are Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Moldova. Its administrative center is in Minsk, Belarus. The Commonwealth's functions are to coordinate its members' policies regarding their economies, foreign relations, defense, immigration policies, environmental protection and law enforcement.
rate 15. Legislature of the U.S., separated structurally from the executive and judicial branches of government. Established by the Constitution of the United States, it succeeded the unicameral congress created by the Articles of Confederation (1781). It consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Representation in the Senate is fixed at two senators per state. Until passage of the 17th Amendment (1913), senators were appointed by the state legislatures; since then they have been elected directly. In the House, representation is proportional to each state's population; total membership is restricted (since 1912) to 435 members (the total rose temporarily to 437 following the admission of Hawaii and Alaska as states in 1959). Congressional business is processed by committees: bills are debated in committees in both houses and reconciliation of the two resulting versions takes place in a conference committee. A presidential veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Congress's constitutional powers include the setting and collecting of taxes, borrowing money on credit, regulating commerce, coining money, declaring war, raising and supporting armies and making all laws necessary for the execution of its powers. All finance-related legislation must originate in the House; powers exclusive to the Senate include approval of presidential nominations, ratification of treaties and adjudication of impeachments.
rate 16. Fundamental law of the United States federal system of government and a landmark document of the Western world. It is the oldest written national constitution in operation, completed in 1787 at the Constitutional Convention of 55 delegates who met in Philadelphia, ostensibly to amend the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution was ratified in June 1788, but because ratification in many states was contingent on the promised addition of a Bill of Rights, Congress proposed 12 amendments in September 1789; 10 were ratified by the states and their adoption was certified on Dec. 15, 1791. The framers were especially concerned with limiting the power of the government and securing the liberty of citizens. The Constitution's separation of the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government, the checks and balances of each branch against the other and the explicit guarantees of individual liberty were all designed to strike a balance between authority and liberty. Article I vests all legislative powers in the Congress; the House of Representatives and the Senate. Article II vests executive power in the president. Article III places judicial power in the hands of the courts. Article IV deals, in part, with relations among the states and with the privileges of the citizens, Article V with amendment procedure and Article VI with public debts and the supremacy of the Constitution. Article VII stipulates that the Constitution would become operational after being ratified by nine states. The 10th Amendment limits the national government's powers to those expressly listed in the Constitution; the states, unless otherwise restricted, possess all the remaining (or "residual") powers of government. Amendments to the Constitution may be proposed by a two-thirds vote of both houses of Congress or by a convention called by Congress on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the states. (All subsequent amendments have been initiated by Congress.) Amendments proposed by Congress must be ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures or by conventions in as many states. Twenty-seven amendments have been added to the Constitution since 1789. In addition to the Bill of Rights, these include the 13th (1865), abolishing slavery; the 14th (1868), requiring due process and equal protection under the law; the 15th (1870), guaranteeing the right to vote regardless of race; the 17th (1913), providing for the direct election of United States senators; the 19th (1920), instituting women's suffrage and the 22nd (1951), limiting the presidency to two terms.
rate 17. One of the principal United States government agencies in international finance. Originally incorporated as the Export-Import Bank of Washington in 1934, its goal is to help finance United States exports, principally by lending money to foreign buyers of United States goods and services. Such assistance often consists of credits to foreign banks and governments in connection with development projects.
rate 18. One of the principal United States government agencies in international finance. Originally incorporated as the Export-Import Bank of Washington in 1934, its goal is to help finance United States exports, principally by lending money to foreign buyers of United States goods and services. Such assistance often consists of credits to foreign banks and governments in connection with development projects.
rate 19. Largest university system in the United States Founded in 1948, it consists of university centres in Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo and Stony Brook; colleges of arts and sciences in Brockport, Buffalo, Cortland, Fredonia, Geneseo, New Paltz, Old Westbury, Oneonta, Oswego, Plattsburgh, Potsdam and Purchase; three medical centres (two in New York City and one in Syracuse); several two-year agricultural and technical colleges; a nonresidential continuing-education program (Empire State College); over 30 community colleges; and various other specialized units.
rate 20. International organization formed in 1948 to replace the Pan-American Union. It promotes economic, military and cultural cooperation among its members, which include almost all the independent states of the Western Hemisphere. (Cuba's membership was suspended in 1962.) The OAS's main goals are to maintain peace in the Western Hemisphere and to prevent intervention in the region by any outside state. Since the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, the OAS has more actively encouraged democratic government in member states, in part by organizing missions to observe and monitor elections.
rate 21. Italian Stati Pontifici; Territories of central Italy over which the pope had sovereignty from 756 to 1870. The extent of the territory and the degree of papal control varied over the centuries. As early as the 4th century, the popes had acquired considerable property around Rome (called the Patrimony of St. Peter). From the 5th century, with the breakdown of Roman imperial authority in the West, the popes' influence in central Italy increased as the people of the area relied on them for protection against the barbarian invasions. When the Lombards threatened to take over the whole peninsula in the 750s, Pope Stephen II (or III) appealed for aid to the Frankish ruler Pippin III (the Short). On intervening, Pippin "restored" the lands of central Italy to the Roman see, ignoring the claim of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire to sovereignty there. This Donation of Pippin (754) provided the basis for the papal claim to temporal power. More land was gained when the papacy acquired the duchy of Benevento in 1077 and Popes Innocent III and Julius II further expanded the papal domain. The rise of communes and rule by local families weakened papal authority in the towns and by the 16th century the papal territory was one of a number of petty Italian states. They were an obstacle to Italian unity until 1870, when Rome was taken by Italian forces and became the capital of Italy. In 1929 the Lateran Treaty settled the pope's relation to the Italian state and set up an independent city-state.
rate 22. Final court of appeal in the United States judicial system and final interpreter of the Constitution of the United States. The Supreme Court was created by the Constitutional Convention of 1787 as the head of a federal court system, though it was not formally established until Congress passed the Judiciary Act in 1789. It was granted authority to act in cases arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States in controversies to which the United States is a party; in controversies between states or between citizens of different states; in cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; and in cases affecting ambassadors or other ministers or consuls. Its size, which is set by Congress, varied between 6 and 10 members before being set at 9 in 1869. Justices are appointed by the president but must be confirmed by the Senate. The court has exercised the power of judicial review since 1803, when it first declared part of a law unconstitutional in Marbury v. Madison, though the power is not explicitly granted to it by the Constitution. Though the court can sometimes serve as a trial court through its original jurisdiction, relatively few cases reach the court in this manner; most cases arise by appeal or by certiorari. Among the most important doctrinal sources used by the Supreme Court have been the commerce, due-process and equal-protection clauses of the Constitution. It also has often ruled on controversies involving civil liberties, including freedom of speech and the right of privacy. Much of its work consists of clarifying, refining and testing the Constitution's philosophic ideals and translating them into working principles.
rate 23. formerly Trucial States; Federation of seven states, eastern Arabian Peninsula. They are the emirates of Ab&#016B; Zab&#012B; (Abu Dhabi), Dubayy (Dubai), &#02BD;Ajmen, Al-Sheriqah (Sharjah), Umm al-Qaywayn, Ra&#02BE;s al-Khaymah and Al-Fujayrah. Area: 32,280 sq mi (83,600 sq km). Population (2002 estimated): 32,550,000. Capital: Abu Dhabi. The indigenous inhabitants are Arabs, but there are a large number of Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Iranian migrant workers. Languages: Arabic (official), English, Persian, Urdu, Hindi. Religions: Islam (official), Christianity, Hinduism. Currency: UAE dirham. The United Arab Emirates' low-lying desert plain is broken by the &#1E24;ajar Mountains along the Musandam Peninsula. Three natural deepwater harbours are located along the Gulf of Oman. The UAE has roughly one-tenth of the world's petroleum reserves and significant natural gas deposits, the production of which are the federation's principal industries. Other important economic activities include fishing, livestock herding and date production. The federation has one appointive advisory board; its chief of state is the president and the head of government is the prime minister. In 1820 the British signed a peace treaty with the region's coastal rulers. The area, formerly called the Pirate Coast, became known as the Trucial Coast. In 1892 the rulers agreed to entrust foreign relations to Britain. Although the British administered the region from 1843, they never assumed sovereignty; each state maintained full internal control. The states formed the Trucial States Council in 1960 and in 1971 terminated defense treaties with Britain and established the six-member federation. Ra&#02BE;s al-Khaymah joined it in 1972. The UAE aided coalition forces against Iraq in the Persian Gulf War (1991).
rate 24. officially United States of America; Federal republic, North America. It comprises 48 contiguous states occupying the mid-continent, Alaska at the northwestern extreme of North America and the island state of Hawaii in the mid-Pacific Ocean. Area, including the United States share of the Great Lakes: 3,675,031 sq mi (9,518,287 sq km). Population (2002 estimated): 287,602,000. Capital: Washington, D.C. The population includes people of European and Middle Eastern ancestry, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians (Native Americans) and Alaska Natives. Languages: English (predominant), Spanish. Religions: Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Judaism, Islam. Currency: United States dollar. The country's regions encompass mountains, plains, lowlands and deserts. Mountain ranges include the Appalachians, Ozarks, Rockies, Cascades and Sierra Nevada. The lowest point is Death Valley, Calif. The highest point is Alaska's Mount McKinley; within the coterminous United States it is Mount Whitney, Calif. Chief rivers are the Mississippi system, the Colorado, the Columbia and the Rio Grande. The Great Lakes, the Great Salt Lake and Lake Okeechobee are the largest lakes. The United States is among the world's leading producers of several minerals, including copper, silver, zinc, gold, coal, petroleum and natural gas; it is the chief exporter of food. Its manufactures include iron and steel, chemicals, electronic equipment and textiles. Other important industries are tourism, dairying, livestock raising, fishing and lumbering. The United States is a republic with two legislative houses; its head of state and government is the president. The territory was originally inhabited for several thousand years by numerous American Indian peoples who had probably emigrated from Asia. European exploration and settlement from the 16th century began displacement of the Indians. The first permanent European settlement, by the Spanish, was at Saint Augustine, Fla., in 1565; the British settled Jamestown, Va. (1607); Plymouth, Mass. (1620); Maryland (1634); and Pennsylvania (1681). The British took New York, New Jersey and Delaware from the Dutch in 1664, a year after the Carolinas had been granted to British noblemen. The British defeat of the French in 1763 assured British political control over its 13 colonies. Political unrest caused by British colonial policy culminated in the American Revolution (1775–83) and the Declaration of Independence (1776). The United States was first organized under the Articles of Confederation (1781), then finally under the Constitution (1787) as a federal republic. Boundaries extended west to the Mississippi River, excluding Spanish Florida. Land acquired from France by the Louisiana Purchase (1803) nearly doubled the country's territory. The United States fought the War of 1812 against the British and acquired Florida from Spain in 1819. In 1830 it legalized removal of American Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River. Settlement expanded into the Far West in the mid-19th century, especially after the discovery of gold in California in 1848. Victory in the Mexican War (1846–48) brought the territory of seven more future states (including California and Texas) into United States hands. The northwestern boundary was established by treaty with Great Britain in 1846. The United States acquired southern Arizona by the Gadsden Purchase (1853). It suffered disunity during the conflict between the slavery-based plantation economy in the South and the free industrial and agricultural economy in the North, culminating in the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery under the 13th Amendment. After Reconstruction (1865–77) the United States experienced rapid growth, urbanization, industrial development and European immigration. In 1877 it authorized allotment of American Indian reservation land to individual tribesmen, resulting in widespread loss of land to whites. By the end of the 19th century, it had developed foreign trade and acquired outlying territories, including Alaska, Midway Island, the Hawaiian Islands, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, Wake Island, American Samoa, the Panama Canal Zone and the Virgin Islands. The United States participated in World War I in 1917–18. It granted suffrage to women in 1920 and citizenship to American Indians in 1924. The stock market crash of 1929 led to the Great Depression. The United States entered World War II after the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941). The explosion by the United States of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) and another on Nagasaki (August 9, 1945), Japan, brought about Japan's surrender. Thereafter the United States was the military and economic leader of the Western world. In the first decade after the war, it aided the reconstruction of Europe and Japan and became embroiled in a rivalry with the Soviet Union known as the Cold War. It participated in the Korean War from 1950 to 1953. In 1952 it granted autonomous commonwealth status to Puerto Rico. Racial segregation in schools was declared unconstitutional in 1954. Alaska and Hawaii were made states in 1959. In 1964 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act and authorized United States entry into the Vietnam War. The mid-to late 1960s were marked by widespread civil disorder, including race riots and antiwar demonstrations. The United States accomplished the first manned lunar landing in 1969. All United States troops were withdrawn from Vietnam in 1973. The United States led a coalition of forces against Iraq in the First Persian Gulf War (1991), sent troops to Somalia (1992) to aid starving populations and participated in NATO air strikes against Serbian forces in the former Yugoslavia in 1995 and 1999. In 1998 Pres. Bill Clinton became only the second president to be impeached by the House of Representatives; he was acquitted by the Senate in 1999. Administration of the Panama Canal was turned over to Panama in 1999. In 2000 George W. Bush became the first person since 1888 to be elected president by the electoral college despite having won fewer popular votes than his opponent, Al Gore. After the September 11 attacks on the United States in 2001 destroyed the World Trade Center and part of the Pentagon, the United States attacked Afghanistan's Taliban government for harbouring and refusing to extradite the mastermind of the terrorism, Osama bin Laden. In 2003 the United States and the United Kingdom attacked Iraq and overthrew the government of Saddem &#1E24;ussein, which they had accused of aiding terrorists and possessing and developing biological, chemical and nuclear weapons. As the United States attempted to help reconstruct and bring democracy to Iraq, it faced an escalating Iraqi insurgency. In 2004 Bush narrowly defeated Democratic challenger John Kerry to win a second presidential term.
rate 25. Major component of the United States military organization, with primary responsibility for air warfare, air defense and military space research. It also provides air services in coordination with the other military branches. United States military activities in the air began with army use of balloons for reconnaissance during the Civil War and the Spanish-American War; in 1907 the Aeronautical Division of the Signal Corps was created. In 1920 the Army Reorganization Act created the Air Service (after 1926, Air Corps) as a unit of the Army; in 1941 it became the Army Air Forces. In 1947 the independent United States Air Force was created and became part of the newly created Department of Defense in 1949. The Department of the Air Force is headquartered at the Pentagon. Separate operating agencies of the Air Force include the Air Force Reserve, the Air Force Intelligence Service and the U.S. Air Force Academy. In 2000 there were over 350,000 Air Force personnel on active duty.
rate 26. Institution for the training of commissioned officers for the U.S. Air Force, located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Created by an act of Congress in 1954, it opened in 1955. Graduates receive a bachelor's degree and a second lieutenant's commission. Most physically qualified graduates go on to Air Force pilot-training schools. Candidates may come from the ranks of the United States Army or Air Force, may be children of deceased veterans of the armed forces, or may be nominated by United States senators or representatives or by the president or vice president. All applicants must take a competitive entrance examination.
rate 27. Major branch of the United States military forces, charged with preserving peace and security and defending the nation. The first regular United States fighting force, the Continental Army, was organized by the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775, to supplement local militias in the American Revolution. It was placed under the control of a five-member civilian board and United States military forces have remained in civilian control ever since. The United States Constitution named the president as commander in chief and in 1789 the civilian Department of War was established to administer the armed forces. The Continental Army was officially disbanded in 1783 and a small regular army was established. Thereafter, the army's size increased during times of crisis, swelled by conscription and decreased during peacetime. The Department of the Army is organized as a military section of the Department of Defense and is headed by the Secretary of the Army. The Army Staff gives advice and assistance to the secretary and administers civil functions, including the civil-works program of the Corps of Engineers. The army also administers the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. In 2000 there were about 400,000 soldiers on active duty.
rate 28. U.S. military service that enforces maritime laws. It is under the jurisdiction of the Department of Homeland Security; in wartime it functions as part of the United States Navy. The Coast Guard enforces federal laws on the high seas and waters within United States territorial jurisdiction, develops and operates aids to navigation and maintains a network of lifeboat and search-and-rescue stations using surface vessels and aircraft. It assists in the interdiction of illegal narcotics bound for the United States on or over coastal waters. It operates the International Ice Patrol (which maintains surveillance of icebergs in the North Atlantic shipping lanes), gathers data for the National Weather Service and assists distressed ships and planes. Its wartime duties include ship escort, port security and transport duty. In 2000 there were some 35,000 Coast Guard personnel on active duty. Cadets are trained at the Coast Guard Academy in New London, Conn.
rate 29. In the U.S., the intermediate appellate courts included in the federal judicial system and created by act of Congress. There are 13 courts of appeal, including 12 courts whose jurisdictions are geographically apportioned and the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, whose jurisdiction is subject-oriented and nationwide. The Federal Circuit court, located in Washington, D.C., was created by an act of Congress in 1982 and hears appeals from United States district and territorial courts primarily in patent and trademark cases, though it also hears appeals in cases in which the United States or its agencies is a defendant, as in alleged breaches of contract or in tax disputes. The courts are empowered to review the decisions of federal district courts, as well as the decisions of the divisions of the United States Tax Court within their jurisdictions and those of the United States Bankruptcy Courts. All decisions of the courts are subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States.
rate 30. In the U.S., any of the 94 trial courts of general jurisdiction in the federal judicial system. Each state, as well as the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, has at least one federal district court. Each court has at least one district judge and can have more than a score of them, as well as a clerk, a United States attorney, a United States marshal, one or more United States magistrates, bankruptcy judges, probation officers and other staff. Decisions of the district courts are normally subject to appeal, typically to the United States Court of Appeals for the region in which the district court is located.
rate 31. Separate military service within the United States Department of the Navy, charged with providing marine troops for seizure and defense of advanced bases and with conducting operations on land and in the air in connection with naval campaigns. It is also responsible for providing detachments for service aboard certain types of naval vessels, as well as security forces for naval shore installations and United States diplomatic missions in foreign countries. The corps specializes in amphibious landings, such as those on Japanese-held islands in World War II. Marines have served in every major United States naval action since 1775, usually being the first or among the first to fight. In 2000 there were some 175,000 Marines on active duty.
rate 32. known as West Point; Institution for the training of commissioned officers for the U.S. Army. Founded in 1802 at the fort at West Point, New York, it is one of the oldest service academies in the world. It was established as an apprentice school for military engineers and was, in effect, the first United States school of engineering. It was reorganized in 1812 and in 1866 its educational program was expanded considerably. Women were first admitted in 1976. The four-year course of college-level education and training leads to a bachelor of science degree and a commission as second lieutenant in the Army. West Point has trained such leaders as Ulysses S. Grant, William T. Sherman, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson, Jefferson Davis, John Pershing, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, Omar Bradley and George Patton.
rate 33. known as Annapolis; Institution for the training of commissioned officers for the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps. It was founded at Annapolis, Md., in 1845 and reorganized in 1850–51. Women were first admitted in 1976. Graduates are awarded the degree of bachelor of science and a commission as ensign in the Navy or as second lieutenant in the Marine Corps. Annapolis has produced many notable Americans, including George Dewey, Richard E. Byrd, Chester Nimitz, William F. Halsey, Jr., A.A. Michelson, Hyman Rickover, Jimmy Carter, Ross Perot and several astronauts.
rate 34. Major branch of the United States military forces, charged with defending the nation at sea and maintaining security on the seas wherever United States interests extend. The Continental Navy was established by the Continental Congress in 1775. It was disbanded in 1784, but the harassment of United States merchant ships by Barbary pirates prompted Congress to establish the Department of the Navy in 1798. The navy took part in the War of 1812 and was later important in the Union victory in the American Civil War. Sea victories during the Spanish-American War (1898) led to a period of steady growth. In World War I, its duties were limited to troop transport, minelaying and escorting merchant ships. The Japanese attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor (1941) led to United States entry into World War II, in which, in addition to antisubmarine and troop transport duties, the navy conducted amphibious assaults in the Pacific theater and along the European coast. Aircraft carriers proved decisive in battles with Japanese forces in the Pacific and they are still the backbone of the navy's fleets. Since World War II it has remained the largest and most powerful navy in the world. The Department of the Navy, a branch of the Department of Defense, is headed by a secretary of the navy. The navy includes the U.S. Marine Corps and, during wartime, the U.S. Coast Guard. In 2000 there were almost 400,000 Navy personnel on active duty, excluding the Marine Corps and Coast Guard.
rate 35. officially French State French État Français; (July 1940–September 1944) French regime in World War II after the German defeat of France. The Franco-German armistice (June 1940) divided France into two zones: one under German military occupation and one under nominal French control (the southeastern two-fifths of the country). The National Assembly, summoned at Vichy to ratify the armistice, was persuaded by Pierre Laval to grant Philippe Pétain authority to assume full powers in the French State. The antirepublican Vichy government collaborated with the Germans and became increasingly a tool of German policy, especially after the Germans occupied the whole of France in 1942. By early 1944 the Resistance movement against the Gestapo and Vichy militias created a period of civil war in France and after the liberation of Paris the Vichy regime was abolished.
rate 36. Political organization of society, or the body politic, or, more narrowly, the institutions of government. The state is distinguished from other social groups by its purpose (establishment of order and security), methods (its laws and their enforcement), territory (its area of jurisdiction) and sovereignty. In some countries (e.g., the U.S.), the term also refers to nonsovereign political units subject to the authority of the larger state, or federal union.
rate 37. Islamic State of Afghanistan
rate 38. State of Brunei Darussalam
rate 39. Gosudarstvennaya Duma State Assembly
rate 40. State of Eritrea
rate 41. State of Israel
rate 42. State of Kuwait
rate 43. State of Qatar
rate 44. Independent State of Samoa
rate 45. Staatssicherheit State Security
rate 46. church and state
rate 47. city state
rate 48. Empire State Building
rate 49. metastable state
rate 50. Moscow State University
rate 51. New York State University of
rate 52. Ohio State University
rate 53. Orange Free State
rate 54. Independent State of Papua New Guinea
rate 55. Pennsylvania State University
rate 56. solid state device
rate 57. solid state physics
rate 58. state equation of
rate 59. steady state theory
rate 60. State of the Vatican City
rate 61. French State
rate 62. welfare state
rate 63. Congo Free State
rate 64. Gosudarstvenny Universalny Magazin Russian: State Department Store
rate 65. States' Rights Democrat
rate 66. United Mexican States
rate 67. War Between the States
rate 68. United States War of Independence
rate 69. League of Arab States
rate 70. Association of Caribbean States
rate 71. Baltic States
rate 72. Bank of the United States
rate 73. Capitol United States
rate 74. Commonwealth of Independent States
rate 75. Confederate States of America
rate 76. Congress of the United States
rate 77. Constitution of the United States
rate 78. crusader states
rate 79. States General
rate 80. Export Import Bank of the United States Ex Im Bank
rate 81. Luba Lunda states
rate 82. Micronesia Federated States of
rate 83. Mossi states
rate 84. Organization of American States
rate 85. Papal States
rate 86. Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States
rate 87. states' rights
rate 88. Supreme Court of the United States
rate 89. Trucial States
rate 90. United States
rate 91. United States of America
rate 92. United States Air Force
rate 93. United States Air Force Academy
rate 94. United States Army
rate 95. United States Coast Guard
rate 96. United States Courts of Appeals
rate 97. United States District Court
rate 98. United States Marine Corps
rate 99. United States Military Academy
rate 100. United States Naval Academy
rate 101. United States Navy
rate 102. United States Steel Corp.
rate 103. Warring States period;
rate 104. Any of a class of equations that relate the pressure P, volume V and temperature T of a given substance in thermodynamic equilibrium. For example, the equation PV = nRT, where n is the number of moles of gas and R is the universal gas constant, relates the pressure, volume and temperature of a perfect gas. Real gases, solids and liquids have more complicated equations of state.
rate 105. political organization of society or the body politic, or, more narrowly, the institutions of government. The state is a form of human association distinguished from other social groups by its purpose, the establishment of order and security; its methods, the laws and their enforcement; its territory, the area of jurisdiction or geographic boundaries and finally by its sovereignty. The state consists, most broadly, of the agreement of the individuals on the means whereby disputes are settled in the form of laws. In such countries as the United States, Australia, Nigeria, Mexico and Brazil, the term state (or a cognate) also refers to political units, not sovereign themselves, but subject to the authority of the larger state or federal union. The history of the Western state begins in ancient Greece. Plato and Aristotle wrote of the polis or city-state, as an ideal form of association, in which the whole community's religious, cultural, political and economic needs could be satisfied. This city-state, characterized primarily by its self-sufficiency, was seen by Aristotle as the means of developing morality in the human character. The Greek idea corresponds more accurately to the modern concept of the nationi.e., a population of a fixed area that shares a common language, culture and historywhereas the Roman res publica or commonwealth, is more similar to the modern concept of the state. The res publica was a legal system whose jurisdiction extended to all Roman citizens, securing their rights and determining their responsibilities. With the fragmentation of the Roman system, the question of authority and the need for order and security led to a long period of struggle between the warring feudal lords of Europe. It was not until the 16th century that the modern concept of the state emerged, in the writings of Niccol Machiavelli (Italy) and Jean Bodin (France), as the centralizing force whereby stability might be regained. In The Prince, Machiavelli gave prime importance to the durability of government, sweeping aside all moral considerations and focusing instead on the strengththe vitality, courage and independenceof the ruler. For Bodin, his contemporary, power was not sufficient in itself to create a sovereign; rule must comply with morality to be durable and it must have continuityi.e., a means of establishing succession. Bodin's theory was the forerunner of the 17th-century doctrine of the divine right of kings, whereby monarchy became the predominate form of government in Europe. It created a climate for the ideas of the 17th-century reformers like John Locke in England and Jean-Jacques Rousseau in France, who began to reexamine the origins and purposes of the state. Rather than the right of a monarch to rule, Rousseau proposed that the state owed its authority to the general will of the governed. For him, the nation itself is sovereign and the law is none other than the will of the people as a whole. Influenced by Plato, Rousseau recognized the state as the environment for the moral development of humanity. Man, though corrupted by his civilization, remained basically good and therefore capable of assuming the moral position of aiming at the general welfare. Because the result of aiming at individual purposes is disagreement, a healthy (noncorrupting) state can exist only when the common good is recognized as the goal. Rousseau's ideas reflect an attitude far more positive in respect of human nature than either Locke or Thomas Hobbes, his 16th-century English predecessor. The natural condition of man, said Hobbes, is self-seeking and competitive. Man subjects himself to the rule of the state as the only means of self-preservation whereby he can escape the brutish cycle of mutual destruction that is otherwise the result of his contact with others. For Locke, the human condition is not so gloomy, but the state again springs from the need for protectionin this case, of inherent rights. Locke said that the state is the social contract by which individuals agree not to infringe on each other's natural rights to life, liberty and property, in exchange for which each man secures his own sphere of liberty. The 19th-century German philosopher G.W.F. Hegel saw the sphere of liberty as the whole state, with freedom not so much an individual's right, but rather, a result of human reason. Freedom was not the capacity to do as one liked but was the alignment with a universal will toward well-being. When men acted as moral agents, conflict ceased and their aims coincided. Subordinating himself to the state, the individual was able to realize a synthesis between the values of family and the needs of economic life. To Hegel, the state was the culmination of moral action, where freedom of choice had led to the unity of the rational will and all parts of society were nourished within the health of the whole. However, Hegel remained enchanted with the power of national aspiration. He did not share the vision of Immanuel Kant, his predecessor, who proposed the establishment of a league of nations to end conflict altogether and to establish a perpetual peace. For the English utilitarians of the 19th century, the state was an artificial means of producing a unity of interest and a device for maintaining stability. This benign but mechanistic view proposed by Jeremy Bentham and others set a precedent for the early communist thinkers like Karl Marx for whom the state had become an apparatus of oppression determined by a ruling class whose object was always to maintain itself in economic supremacy. He and his collaborator, Friedrich Engels, wrote in The Communist Manifesto that, in order to realize complete freedom and contentment, the people must replace the government first by a dictatorship of the proletariat, which would be followed by the withering away of the state and then by a classless society based not on the enforcement of laws but on the organization of the means of production and the fair distribution of goods and property. In the 20th century, concepts of state ranged from anarchism, in which the state was deemed unnecessary and even harmful in that it operated by some form of coercion, to the welfare state, in which the government was held to be responsible for the survival of its members, guaranteeing subsistence to those lacking it. In the wake of the destruction produced by the nationalistically inspired world wars, theories of internationalism like those of Hans Kelsen and Oscar Ichazo appeared. Kelsen put forward the idea of the state as simply a centralized legal order, no more sovereign than the individual, in that it could not be defined only by its own existence and experience. It must be seen in the context of its interaction with the rest of the world. Ichazo proposed a new kind of state in which the universal qualities of all individuals provided a basis for unification, with the whole society functioning as a single organism.
rate 106. There are six states of existence (gati). The highest three are the gods, the asuras , and human beings; they result from good karma . The lowest three are animals, hungry ghosts , and demons (hell-dwellers); they result from bad karma. Some forms of Buddhism view the asuras as stemming from bad karma and other ignore them completely, having only five states of existence.
rate 107. C O U N T R Y (n) a country or its government Some theatres receive a small amount of funding from the state/state funding. The drought is worst in the central African states. Britain is one of the member states of the European Union. After independence the country became a one-party state (= only the ruling political party was officially allowed) . The government was determined to reduce the number of state-owned industries. (formal) His diary included comments on affairs/matters of state (= information about government activities) . In Britain, the position of Home Secretary is one of the three most important offices of state (= positions in the government) . A state is also a part of a large country with its own government, as in Germany, Australia or the US. The speed limit in America varies from state to state. Elections in the states will precede the national election by a month. (informal) The States is used to refer to the United States of America.
rate 108. A term of international law: those groups of people which have acquired international recognition as an independent country and which have four characteristics; permanent and large population with, generally, a common language; a defined and distinct territory; a nations to refer to what international law calls states - State - State
rate 109. One of the 50 States, including adjacent outer continental shelf areas, or the District of Columbia.
rate 110. The agency of the State or Tribal government which has jurisdiction over public water systems. During any period when a State or Tribal government does not have primary enforcement responsibility pursuant to Section 1413 of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the term "State" means the Regional Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
rate 111. In lighting terms, a lighting "picture"; each lighting cue results in a different state (or a modified state).
rate 112. Aviation space model. A mathematical relationship of a system in time using state variables, inputs, outputs, and constants; The state-space model is composed of n state variables (x sub 1 , x sub 2 , ..., x sub n), m input variables (u sub 1 , u sub 2 , ..., u sub m), k output variables (y sub 1 , y sub 2 , ..., y sub k), and four constants a, b, c, and d. Alternatively, a state-space model can be expressed with matrices. Compare: continuous-time equation, difference equation, differential equation, discrete-time equation, Laplace transform, Z transform;
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